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How to plan your running activity

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A Parametric Study of Handgun Concealed Carry

When selecting a specific handgun for concealed carry self defense usage, numerous factors are of great concern.

Some of these factors include: handgun size, weight, caliber, capacity, reliability, accuracy, action type, safety systems, and cost.

Additional factors also to be considered include: user’s body size and shape, user’s skill level, holster type and carry location, and an expected worst case threat level.

Many of these concerns require a compromise such as: 1) the most powerful caliber is not associated with the lightest weight, 2) the largest capacity is not associated with the smallest size, and 3) the lowest cost is not associated with the highest reliability, etc.

Therefore, given the large number of opposing parameters, when selecting the specific handgun for concealed carry self defense usage, a compromise handgun is always selected.

In this study I attempt to evaluate the handgun compromise by only looking at four handgun parameters: size, weight, caliber, and capacity.

 

This compromise is shown pictorially by:

 

 

If we can select a group of handguns that satisfies the compromise based on an appropriate balance of size, weight, caliber, and capacity, a user could then select a single handgun from the group based on the other important parameters of reliability, accuracy, action type, safety systems, cost, etc.

The group of handguns that satisfies the compromise will be highly dependent on three additional factors: 1) number of adversary targets, 2) the number of shots fired at the target(s), and 3) the percentage of shots fired that are good solid hits on the target(s). These factors are not attributes of the handgun and ammunition but are specific to a particular situation or scenario.

Therefore, the optimum compromise handguns are specific scenario dependent. This is realistic because various handguns are more or less suited for differing scenarios.

List of Handguns

Details of the Analysis


This study evaluates concealed carry handguns for self defense in various scenarios using the following parameters:

Handgun Size


For this study, handgun size is defined by three terms:

  • Overall Length (OL)
  • Overall Height (OH)
  • Overall Width (OW)

OL = measured parallel to the barrel from the front of the barrel to the rear of the grips/stocks.

OH = measured perpendicular to the barrel from the top of the slide/top strap (not including sights) to the bottom of the grips/stocks (assumes “combat” sights).

OW = For Revolvers: the maximum diameter of the cylinder (assumes “combat stocks).

OW = For Pistols: the maximum width of the grip (assumes “combat” safeties).

All dimensions are in inches.

Handgun Weight

Handgun Weight


For this study, Handgun Weight is defined as the handgun empty (plus magazine empty, if appropriate).

All weights are in ounces.

Note: I would like to use “loaded” weight, but have not had the time to put it together.

Handgun Ammunition Capacity

Handgun Ammunition Capacity


For this study, Handgun Ammunition Capacity is defined as:

For Revolvers: the original manufacture cylinder capacity.

For Pistols: the capacity of an original manufacture, flush fitting, pre-ban magazine plus one in the chamber (unless handgun is not “safe” to carry with one in the chamber).

For this study, the ability to reload the handgun is disregarded.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage

One-Shot-Stop Percentage


It is assumed that a user selecting to carry a concealed handgun for self defense will select the most effective, readily available ammunition.

Ammunition effectiveness for this study is defined by the One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage is a number highly written about and highly discussed in gun magazines.

Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller are usually associated with this topic and Sanow and Marshall have published two books on the topic (the second book with Fuller). Marshall uses actual street data in determining One-Shot-Stop Percentage. Fuller uses a statistically derived equation in determining the Fuller Index which is an estimate of One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) is a number estimating how many assailants will be “stopped” when hit by a One-Shot-Stop Hit.

Definition of One-Shot-Stop Hit

One-Shot Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) is caliber dependent.

The One-Shot-Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) used in this study for various handgun calibers is:

 

Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits


For this study, Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is defined as the percentage of shots fired that would be classified as potential One-Shot-Stop Hits by Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller when calculating One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

 

Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is used in conjunction with Total Number of Shot Fired to calculate number of One-Shot-Stop Hits.

 

 

Definition of Total Number of Shots Fired


The Number of Shots Fired is dependent on handgun ammunition capacity and can and will be limited by a specific handgun’s ammunition capacity.

 

Definition of Handgun Ammunition Capacity


For this study, Handgun Ammunition Capacity is defined as:

For Revolvers: the original manufacture cylinder capacity.

For Pistols: the capacity of an original manufacture, flush fitting, pre-ban magazine plus one in the chamber (unless handgun is not “safe” to carry with one in the chamber).

 

For this study, the ability to reload the handgun is disregarded.

For this study, Total Number of Shots Fired is a number chosen by the user and is specific scenario dependent.

Also, for this study, the ability to reload the handgun to increase The Number of Shots Fired is disregarded.

 

Definition of One-Shot-Stop Hits


A One-Shot-Stop Hit is a topic highly written about and highly discussed in gun magazines.

Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller are usually associated with the statistical discussion of this topic and Sanow and Marshall have written two books on the topic (the second book with Fuller).

One-Shot-Stop Hit is usually described as a “solid” torso hit. Refer to magazines and books for more description.

It must be noted that a missed One-Shot-Stop Hit is not necessarily a miss of the target.

One-Shot-Stop Hits is defined as:

It must be noted that a missed One-Shot-Stop Hit is not necessarily a miss of the target.

For this study, Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is specific scenario dependent and is chosen by the user.

Total Number of Shots Fired

Definition of Total Number of Shots Fired

The Number of Shots Fired is dependent on handgun ammunition capacity and can and will be limited by a specific handgun’s ammunition capacity.

Definition of Handgun Ammunition Capacity

For this study, Total Number of Shots Fired is a number chosen by the user and is specific scenario dependent.

Also, for this study, the ability to reload the handgun to increase The Number of Shots Fired is disregarded.

Number of Targets

Definition of Number of Targets

For this study, Number of Targets is defined as the quantity of individual targets requiring stopping by handgun fire.

The Number of Targets is specific scenario dependent and is chosen by the user.

This study looks at the handgun, ammo, target system by defining three factors:

The Carry Factor, Carry-f

An Indicator of Handgun Concealed Carryability

Comfortably carrying a concealed handgun for self defense usage is a function of many factors including: human body size and shape, holster type and location, and of course the handgun size, weight, and sharp edges.

For this study, I evaluate the carryability of a handgun by studying the handgun only.

For this study, I define the Carry Factor, Carry-f, which gives an indication of how easily or difficulty a handgun is to physically carry concealed.

The definition of Carry-f is dependent on four parameters:

  • Overall Length (OL)
  • Overall Height (OH)
  • Overall Width (OW)
  • Handgun Weight (WT)

Carry-f is a weighted product of these four parameters.

The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f

An Indicator of Handgun Stopping Power

In most studies of handgun ammunition stopping power, the results discuss only the ammunition. The handgun and the ammunition are a partnership and the specific handgun’s capacity can also play an important role in the stopping power discussion.

The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, is designed to combine the discussions of ammunition stopping power and handgun capacity.

Ammo-f is an indicator of a specific handgun’s stopping power. Ammo-f is specific scenario dependent and is an indicator of a specific handgun’s ability to stop an adversary or multiple adversaries with single or multiple hits.

Ammo-f is dependent on:

  • Handgun Ammunition Capacity
  • One-Shot-Stop Percentage
  • Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits
  • Total Number of Shots Fired

Number of Targets

The beginning of understanding Ammo-f, is to understand how I apply One-Shot-Stop Percentage for a specific Handgun Caliber:

Lets assume a specific Handgun Caliber has a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%.

If 16 targets are hit with a One-Shot-Stop Hit, 12 targets (75%) would be stopped and 4 targets (25%) would not be stopped.

If the 16 targets are hit with a second One-Shot-Stop Hit, the 12 stopped targets would obviously remain stopped.

Of the 4 previously un-stopped targets, 3 (75%) would now be stopped and 1 target (25%) would still remain un-stopped.

Two One-Shot-Stop Hits with a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, would stop 15 out of 16 targets for an Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, of 94%.

If the Percentage of One-Shot-Stop Hits is 33%, than a total of 6 shots would have to be fired to yield the two One-Shot-Stop Hits.

If Handgun Capacity was less than 6 shots, the Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, would be reduced below the 94% level because the gun ran out of ammo!

Finally, if the Number of Targets is two, the Total Number of Shots Fired is 12, and the Percentage of One-Shot-Stop Hits is 33%, then the result would be two One-Shot-Stop Hits per target. If still assuming a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, the scenario would yield an Ammo-f of 94%. And in this case, if the Handgun Capacity was less than 12, Ammo-f would again be reduced below 94% because the gun ran out of ammo.

Note: It could easily be argued that if a first hit had a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, that the second hit could have a One-Shot-Stop Percentage different than 75%. The difficulty in the argument would be determining whether the One-Shot-Stop Percentage increased or decreased. To minimize the discussion, for this study all “hits” have the same One-Shot-Stop Percentage

 

The Concealed Carry Weapon Factor, CCW-f

An Indicator of Optimum Compromise Between Handgun Concealed Carryability and Stopping Power

For this study, I defined The Concealed Carry Weapon Factor, CCW-f.

CCW-f is the number that indicates the relative optimization of the compromise between handgun concealed carryability and handgun stopping power.

CCW-f is dependent on the values for:

  • The Carry Factor, Carry-f
  • The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f

CCW-f is defined as:

A smaller CCW-f indicates a more optimized compromise between carryability and stopping power.

CCW-f values within 10% of each other can be considered equal and can be grouped together.

Since CCW-f is dependent on numerous parameters which are specific scenario dependent, CCW-f ratings vary depending on specific scenario. This is realistic because various handguns are more or less suited for differing scenarios.

CCW-f Results

Notes on interpretation and bringing reality to the results:

1. A greater number of One-Shot-Stop Hits per target helps weaker calibers. This is shown in the study and reflects reality.

2. Greater Numbers of Shots Fired increases the probability of “missed” One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. less than 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits, perhaps way less). This is realistic and in this study is specific scenario dependent and therefore up to the user.

3. Perhaps the most realistic scenarios and, therefore, good places to begin reviewing the study results are:

a) 1 Target, 1 Shot Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. One One-Shot-Stop Hit)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 1 Shot Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits

b) 1 Target, 2 Shots Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. Two One-Shot-Stop Hits)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 2 Shots Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits

c) 1 Target, 3 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. One One-Shot-Stop Hit)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 3 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits

d) 1 Target, 6 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. Two One-Shot-Stop Hits)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 6 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits

 

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A mind needs books as a sword needs a whetstone

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Roscoby Riser Cam (Bow Mounted Camera)

Bow-mounted video camera screws into the stabilizer receptacle on your bow to capture footage of your shots, to show your arrow flight, impact, and even your prey’s reaction. The Riser Cam doubles as a stabilizer as well, using Recoil Absorption Technology (RAT) to recover from shot recoil almost instantaneously. Remove the Riser Cam from your bow and it mounts to any tripod to capture footage from any vantage point. Easy to use with one button for power ON and one button for record. Record with built-in 64 MB memory or expand your capacity with up to a 4 GB SD card (not included). Microphone and AV cables included. Operates on 2 AA batteries (not included).

I guess my review would apply to any small action-cam (video camera); this particular model happens to mount on my compound bow. Other action cams would be mounted on a bike or helmet, or you can strap it onto your head, handlebars, dashboard, car bumper, cat, remote control airplane, etc.

With the riser cam mounted in the stabilizer hole on my bow, I was looking for a shot of my arrow flying towards its intended target. The unit takes 2 batteries, which were nearly impossible to install. The battery housing was so tight, I had to use excessive force, almost enough to break the unit. The on/off button is difficult to push underneath its semi-waterproof rubber exterior. I think with all the technology we have today, buttons should have a desirable touch to them. Keypad buttons on cell phones and laptops, keyboards, any type of functional button should have a nice feel to them, with a smooth action. The Roscoby on/off button is too stiff. After struggling with the batteries, I was ready to film. The camera will take AA batteries, but they recommend Lithium, it sucks a lot of juice.

I turned the camera on and shot a few targets. I need to shoot with the riser cam on to see if it changed the sight references. Anything you change on your bow will change the way your arrows fly. After a few little adjustment to my pins, I took it out for the real test… into my hunting stand, for my first archery hunt.

After a long 2 mile walk to my treestand, the unit was small, light and attached to my bow. That’s a plus. Nothing to carry. No more than 2 hours of the waiting game, a buck walked 30 yards broadside. You can’t ask for a better situation! I turned the riser cam on, and made sure the red light was on, indicating the unit was recording. I had my camera man next to me with a Canon GL2 for the broadcast quality video. As I drew back my bow, I loosed my arrow.

After the hunt, I was anticipating watching the riser cam videos. Could I see my arrow flying towards the deer? What kind of vantage point did I capture? I plugged the riser cam into my TV and saw several videos to choose from that I could review. I watched the ones of me shooting at the 3D and block target. What I saw was very interesting.

I was not able to see my arrow flying at all. The frames per second were too slow to see anything moving at 265 fps. Every time I shot, I of course, after my follow through, I let my bow arm down. The camera captured all of this movement, a streak of fuzziness as my arm was swinging down with the camera still in the ‘on’ position. It was something that I had never thought about all of the movement that I am capturing while recording with an action-type mountable camera. Watching this on your screen will make you dizzy!

The video I wanted to see was the archery hunt. My first bow kill. I navigated the video thumbnails to the last video and saw a black thumbnail. I played it back, and the entire video was black. If I had not had a back-up video camera going, I would have lost a very important moment. I played back all of the videos I’d captured that day and the quality was lacking (n my opinion) on all of them, add the unnecessary movement that I recorded with a mountable video camera and that was all the video I ever needed to see from this camera.

If you are in the market for a mountable action-cam, spend a little extra money on a higher quality, higher frame rate video capturing unit. I am sure that when the final video is edited, you could cut out all the motion and streaks, but you would definitely want some quality in the filming in order for the video to even be worth editing. The Roscoby Riser Cam (bow-mounted) failed my test, and gave me little hope that I would want a mountable camera of any type for filming any of my outdoor activities. I thought it would be neat to capture some videos while cruising around on my motorcycle also, but with the quality of the video being so poor, it truly isn’t worth watching. I would rather have a larger, full size camera and deal with it’s size and cumbersomeness rather than see poor quality video.

Roscoby Riser Cam Features:
• Hands free digital recording
• Resolution: 640 x 480 pixels (VGA)
• Frame rate: 30 frames per second
• Focus range 2 to 40 yards
• Operates with minimum ambient light (5 lux)
• Highly water resistant
• SD card memory expansion (up to 4GB)
• Built-in memory 64MB
• 3.5 mm microphone jack
• Saves audio/video as AVI file format
• Operating system: Windows XP/Vista
• USB and RCA cables included (PC & TV viewing)
• Operates on 2 AA batteries (not included,Lithium batteries recommended)

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S&W Makes A .45 ACP 1911– Hell Freezes Over?!

S&W Makes A .45 ACP 1911– Hell Freezes Over?!

How’d It Happen?

Several years ago there was a persistent rumor S&W was going to offer a 1911 style in the FBI’s competition for a pistol for issue to their SWAT team-trained agents. That didn’t materialize, but S&W did introduce a single-action pistol called the 945 that had a frame very similar to the 1911, but with a barrel/slide setup pure S&W. So the S&W 1911 is not entirely unexpected. What was a surprise was the statement by a S&W executive that they had wanted to do it a long time ago, but had been held back by management. When the old management left the green light was given. So here we are. Read More

Survival Vehicle – The Best SHTF Checklist

The thought of your family being in danger is a good reason to start preparing for a worst case scenario. Recent history has shown us that it pays to be prepared because you never know when a disastrous event will happen. You need to pack the things you need to survive and have a clear idea on how to quickly move to another location. This presents a real challenge because in the face of a calamity, moving to another place can become impossible. This is where a bug out vehicle (BOV) comes in handy. Having a BOV can spell the difference between surviving a disaster and being counted as a casualty.
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What is on Your Bug Out Bag List? Here is Mine…

Natural disasters seem to be getting worse with each passing year. People face personal disasters every day from losing a job to the death of a loved one. Disasters affect people differently – some get paralyzed with fear just thinking about the possibility of facing one while others are motivated to start preparing for the worst case scenario. Read More