Extreme Gear 

We review a wide range of survival gear to help you make the right choices when buying.

K5 tactical tomahawk: rugged as stone!

K5 tactical tomahawk possibly one of the most rugged production hawks ever made. They obviously were made to abuse under normal conditions, where other hawks will crack.

At the beginning of my k5 tactical tomahawk review meet Eddie Killian, the owner of K5 tactical. He made two types of his hawk axe. Tactical tomahawk-spike and a hammer poll.

They made from 3/8? 1050 thick high carbon steel. Edges are tempered and hardened. Handle is not, to improve hawk’s hock absorbing ability. Entire hawk is powder coated. 7.5” Axe head, and 3.5” edge face, the entire length is 16,5?. 3 inches of sharpened edge on the beard made for hooking moves. Aluminium handle scales can be easily removed if you want to wrap handle with cord. It comes to you with a special kydex sheath, which is perfect in all ways to use. Easy to carry and to take out fast if needed. Hawk spike model has a 3.5 inches long spike from the center of axe head.

Ok, now let’s test it. Let’s take a hasp, mounted on wood. When you breaching such thing, you have good chances to hit not only wood, but nails, steel, screws, etc. If blade material is cheap, your hawk is going to be a worthless tool pretty quickly. The main idea of this experiment is to attack the wood around the hasp, reduce the material on the sides of the screws, and create a gap to undercut the hasp. On the way in about 3/4? i sheared some of the screws and even broke one. On the next stap I will engage the side of the hasp with the spike, and then wrench up. In result, the upper part of the hasp easily popped off.
Next test of k5 tactical tomahawk will be about penetration force. Let’s take for this a 1” side of a cement block. K5 tactical hammer poll hawk will do this job better, but we decided to use spike. Look at the picture. We did it easily with five swings, how do you like that? There is no such helmet, which can stand it’s brutal force.

After all the experiments the blade looked rather nice. As you can see from photo, only two big rolls, 1/4? and 1/8?. I got them hitting the hasp screws.

After 20 min of sharping and filed the axe head was cleared. You may see the result. It means, you can always repair it and continue to chop wood and bones.

Shock absorption is nice for a solid metal tool. Vibrations are not trancefer to handler and hand. It’s weakness is it’s price. It’s cost is about 200$ and you’ll have to wait about four weeks for shipping. But anyway you can always find k5 tactical tomahawk for sale on different internet forums and buy it for a cheap price. The tool recieved high points after testing. It’s a good thing for most purposes: hunting, breaching, self defence. You will fing it very useful on campings too. If you liked this hawk, buy it, you can’t be wrong.

Bug Out Bag Clothes

This category is often ignored because people think they can make do with what they are wearing, do not have any spares or are not sure what they should pack. But to ensure survival in an emergency situation, you need the right kind of clothing to protect you from the elements. Extreme conditions like a hurricane, heavy snowfall and dropping temperatures can easily turn fatal if you are not prepared for them. Read More

Leupold Mark 8 CQBSS REVIEW

Recently I was able to spend some time on the range with the new Leupold CQBSS optic. The new CQBSS is a front focal plane 1.1 x 8 power optic built on a 34 mm tube using a Horus 27 illuminated dot reticle. The CQBSS was specifically designed for law enforcement and military use, which is very obvious by its robust and well-designed features. The windage and elevation adjustment dials are large with a pinch release style locking adjustment system to allow quick and secure adjustments even with gloves. Read More

Super Subsonics

Slow down: For out-and-out accuracy, put away the high- and hyper-velocity ammo and load your favorite .22 with “below the speed of sound” stuff.

This blue grouse was taken with a Remington Subsonic HP. The bullet didn’t ruin a bite of meat.

Subsonic .22s are the loads to shoot for the best accuracy and meat-saving shots on small game. You might think high-velocity .22 Long Rifles, with a shorter time of flight, would drift less in the wind and be more accurate than subsonics. However, because subsonics are slightly slower than the speed of sound, they do not encounter a sharp increase in air resistance; that results in less wind drift and more stable flight.

A Not-So-Simple Explanation
The exact speed of sound depends on the temperature of the air. At sea level with a temperature of 70 degrees, sound travels at about 1,128 feet per second. As temperatures fall, air becomes denser and sound travels slower. When a bullet approaches and first passes this velocity, airflow severely buffets it. The outer edge of this transonic zone, if we go with the 1,128 fps at 70 degrees, is between about 902 and 1,466 fps.

Glen Weeks of Winchester Ammunition says a bullet that does not reach the speed of sound is much less affected by air turbulence. “A shadow graph of a subsonic bullet in flight shows a shock wave being pushed in front of the bullet and flowing around the bullet,” Weeks says. “But as a bullet transitions from subsonic to supersonic, the shadow graph shows the bullet piercing the shock wave and the shock wave actually adhering somewhat to the bullet.” Weeks says the shock wave created at these transonic velocities causes all sorts of turbulence. That turbulence can destabilize a bullet and throw it somewhat off course.

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Black is the color of my true love’s hair

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How to plan your running activity

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AKER Flatsider XR13 Holster

Aker makes some of the best police gear accessories, gun holsters and concealment holsters. Aker only uses the finest leather and always gets high remarks in police equipment reviews. Aker holsters are perfect for all types of handguns and revolvers.

I have always owned a Fobus holster that I used when I needed a concealment holster. In my Fobus holster reviews, I always gave them good reviews other than I didn’t think they looked professional. As a result of my new assignment and needing a good looking concealment holster, I went down to pne of my local police equipment stores, Emergency Equipment Engineering (EEE), to look for a new concealment holster.

I started looking at the Aker holsters and thought they were a great looking holster. After some time, I decided on the Aker Flatsider XR13. The Aker Flatsider XR13 is unique because it is flat on one side, allowing for a more comfortable fit. In addition to that, the holster is made with the finest leather that conforms to your pistol. On both sides of the holster are curved belts slots that cooperate to provide stability on the belt with unparalleled concealment. Inside the holster is a full length molded sight channel. With the design of the special dual-plane muzzle, the Aker Flatsider XR 13 can accommodate both standard and short barrels. Read More

Reading in dark always gets me excited

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Running to the hills

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A Parametric Study of Handgun Concealed Carry

When selecting a specific handgun for concealed carry self defense usage, numerous factors are of great concern.

Some of these factors include: handgun size, weight, caliber, capacity, reliability, accuracy, action type, safety systems, and cost.

Additional factors also to be considered include: user’s body size and shape, user’s skill level, holster type and carry location, and an expected worst case threat level.

Many of these concerns require a compromise such as: 1) the most powerful caliber is not associated with the lightest weight, 2) the largest capacity is not associated with the smallest size, and 3) the lowest cost is not associated with the highest reliability, etc.

Therefore, given the large number of opposing parameters, when selecting the specific handgun for concealed carry self defense usage, a compromise handgun is always selected.

In this study I attempt to evaluate the handgun compromise by only looking at four handgun parameters: size, weight, caliber, and capacity.

 

This compromise is shown pictorially by:

 

 

If we can select a group of handguns that satisfies the compromise based on an appropriate balance of size, weight, caliber, and capacity, a user could then select a single handgun from the group based on the other important parameters of reliability, accuracy, action type, safety systems, cost, etc.

The group of handguns that satisfies the compromise will be highly dependent on three additional factors: 1) number of adversary targets, 2) the number of shots fired at the target(s), and 3) the percentage of shots fired that are good solid hits on the target(s). These factors are not attributes of the handgun and ammunition but are specific to a particular situation or scenario.

Therefore, the optimum compromise handguns are specific scenario dependent. This is realistic because various handguns are more or less suited for differing scenarios.

List of Handguns

Details of the Analysis


This study evaluates concealed carry handguns for self defense in various scenarios using the following parameters:

Handgun Size


For this study, handgun size is defined by three terms:

  • Overall Length (OL)
  • Overall Height (OH)
  • Overall Width (OW)

OL = measured parallel to the barrel from the front of the barrel to the rear of the grips/stocks.

OH = measured perpendicular to the barrel from the top of the slide/top strap (not including sights) to the bottom of the grips/stocks (assumes “combat” sights).

OW = For Revolvers: the maximum diameter of the cylinder (assumes “combat stocks).

OW = For Pistols: the maximum width of the grip (assumes “combat” safeties).

All dimensions are in inches.

Handgun Weight

Handgun Weight


For this study, Handgun Weight is defined as the handgun empty (plus magazine empty, if appropriate).

All weights are in ounces.

Note: I would like to use “loaded” weight, but have not had the time to put it together.

Handgun Ammunition Capacity

Handgun Ammunition Capacity


For this study, Handgun Ammunition Capacity is defined as:

For Revolvers: the original manufacture cylinder capacity.

For Pistols: the capacity of an original manufacture, flush fitting, pre-ban magazine plus one in the chamber (unless handgun is not “safe” to carry with one in the chamber).

For this study, the ability to reload the handgun is disregarded.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage

One-Shot-Stop Percentage


It is assumed that a user selecting to carry a concealed handgun for self defense will select the most effective, readily available ammunition.

Ammunition effectiveness for this study is defined by the One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage is a number highly written about and highly discussed in gun magazines.

Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller are usually associated with this topic and Sanow and Marshall have published two books on the topic (the second book with Fuller). Marshall uses actual street data in determining One-Shot-Stop Percentage. Fuller uses a statistically derived equation in determining the Fuller Index which is an estimate of One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

One-Shot-Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) is a number estimating how many assailants will be “stopped” when hit by a One-Shot-Stop Hit.

Definition of One-Shot-Stop Hit

One-Shot Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) is caliber dependent.

The One-Shot-Stop Percentage (Fuller Index) used in this study for various handgun calibers is:

 

Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits


For this study, Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is defined as the percentage of shots fired that would be classified as potential One-Shot-Stop Hits by Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller when calculating One-Shot-Stop Percentage.

 

Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is used in conjunction with Total Number of Shot Fired to calculate number of One-Shot-Stop Hits.

 

 

Definition of Total Number of Shots Fired


The Number of Shots Fired is dependent on handgun ammunition capacity and can and will be limited by a specific handgun’s ammunition capacity.

 

Definition of Handgun Ammunition Capacity


For this study, Handgun Ammunition Capacity is defined as:

For Revolvers: the original manufacture cylinder capacity.

For Pistols: the capacity of an original manufacture, flush fitting, pre-ban magazine plus one in the chamber (unless handgun is not “safe” to carry with one in the chamber).

 

For this study, the ability to reload the handgun is disregarded.

For this study, Total Number of Shots Fired is a number chosen by the user and is specific scenario dependent.

Also, for this study, the ability to reload the handgun to increase The Number of Shots Fired is disregarded.

 

Definition of One-Shot-Stop Hits


A One-Shot-Stop Hit is a topic highly written about and highly discussed in gun magazines.

Sanow, Marshall, and Fuller are usually associated with the statistical discussion of this topic and Sanow and Marshall have written two books on the topic (the second book with Fuller).

One-Shot-Stop Hit is usually described as a “solid” torso hit. Refer to magazines and books for more description.

It must be noted that a missed One-Shot-Stop Hit is not necessarily a miss of the target.

One-Shot-Stop Hits is defined as:

It must be noted that a missed One-Shot-Stop Hit is not necessarily a miss of the target.

For this study, Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits is specific scenario dependent and is chosen by the user.

Total Number of Shots Fired

Definition of Total Number of Shots Fired

The Number of Shots Fired is dependent on handgun ammunition capacity and can and will be limited by a specific handgun’s ammunition capacity.

Definition of Handgun Ammunition Capacity

For this study, Total Number of Shots Fired is a number chosen by the user and is specific scenario dependent.

Also, for this study, the ability to reload the handgun to increase The Number of Shots Fired is disregarded.

Number of Targets

Definition of Number of Targets

For this study, Number of Targets is defined as the quantity of individual targets requiring stopping by handgun fire.

The Number of Targets is specific scenario dependent and is chosen by the user.

This study looks at the handgun, ammo, target system by defining three factors:

The Carry Factor, Carry-f

An Indicator of Handgun Concealed Carryability

Comfortably carrying a concealed handgun for self defense usage is a function of many factors including: human body size and shape, holster type and location, and of course the handgun size, weight, and sharp edges.

For this study, I evaluate the carryability of a handgun by studying the handgun only.

For this study, I define the Carry Factor, Carry-f, which gives an indication of how easily or difficulty a handgun is to physically carry concealed.

The definition of Carry-f is dependent on four parameters:

  • Overall Length (OL)
  • Overall Height (OH)
  • Overall Width (OW)
  • Handgun Weight (WT)

Carry-f is a weighted product of these four parameters.

The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f

An Indicator of Handgun Stopping Power

In most studies of handgun ammunition stopping power, the results discuss only the ammunition. The handgun and the ammunition are a partnership and the specific handgun’s capacity can also play an important role in the stopping power discussion.

The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, is designed to combine the discussions of ammunition stopping power and handgun capacity.

Ammo-f is an indicator of a specific handgun’s stopping power. Ammo-f is specific scenario dependent and is an indicator of a specific handgun’s ability to stop an adversary or multiple adversaries with single or multiple hits.

Ammo-f is dependent on:

  • Handgun Ammunition Capacity
  • One-Shot-Stop Percentage
  • Percent One-Shot-Stop Hits
  • Total Number of Shots Fired

Number of Targets

The beginning of understanding Ammo-f, is to understand how I apply One-Shot-Stop Percentage for a specific Handgun Caliber:

Lets assume a specific Handgun Caliber has a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%.

If 16 targets are hit with a One-Shot-Stop Hit, 12 targets (75%) would be stopped and 4 targets (25%) would not be stopped.

If the 16 targets are hit with a second One-Shot-Stop Hit, the 12 stopped targets would obviously remain stopped.

Of the 4 previously un-stopped targets, 3 (75%) would now be stopped and 1 target (25%) would still remain un-stopped.

Two One-Shot-Stop Hits with a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, would stop 15 out of 16 targets for an Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, of 94%.

If the Percentage of One-Shot-Stop Hits is 33%, than a total of 6 shots would have to be fired to yield the two One-Shot-Stop Hits.

If Handgun Capacity was less than 6 shots, the Ammo Factor, Ammo-f, would be reduced below the 94% level because the gun ran out of ammo!

Finally, if the Number of Targets is two, the Total Number of Shots Fired is 12, and the Percentage of One-Shot-Stop Hits is 33%, then the result would be two One-Shot-Stop Hits per target. If still assuming a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, the scenario would yield an Ammo-f of 94%. And in this case, if the Handgun Capacity was less than 12, Ammo-f would again be reduced below 94% because the gun ran out of ammo.

Note: It could easily be argued that if a first hit had a One-Shot-Stop Percentage of 75%, that the second hit could have a One-Shot-Stop Percentage different than 75%. The difficulty in the argument would be determining whether the One-Shot-Stop Percentage increased or decreased. To minimize the discussion, for this study all “hits” have the same One-Shot-Stop Percentage

 

The Concealed Carry Weapon Factor, CCW-f

An Indicator of Optimum Compromise Between Handgun Concealed Carryability and Stopping Power

For this study, I defined The Concealed Carry Weapon Factor, CCW-f.

CCW-f is the number that indicates the relative optimization of the compromise between handgun concealed carryability and handgun stopping power.

CCW-f is dependent on the values for:

  • The Carry Factor, Carry-f
  • The Ammo Factor, Ammo-f

CCW-f is defined as:

A smaller CCW-f indicates a more optimized compromise between carryability and stopping power.

CCW-f values within 10% of each other can be considered equal and can be grouped together.

Since CCW-f is dependent on numerous parameters which are specific scenario dependent, CCW-f ratings vary depending on specific scenario. This is realistic because various handguns are more or less suited for differing scenarios.

CCW-f Results

Notes on interpretation and bringing reality to the results:

1. A greater number of One-Shot-Stop Hits per target helps weaker calibers. This is shown in the study and reflects reality.

2. Greater Numbers of Shots Fired increases the probability of “missed” One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. less than 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits, perhaps way less). This is realistic and in this study is specific scenario dependent and therefore up to the user.

3. Perhaps the most realistic scenarios and, therefore, good places to begin reviewing the study results are:

a) 1 Target, 1 Shot Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. One One-Shot-Stop Hit)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 1 Shot Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits

b) 1 Target, 2 Shots Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. Two One-Shot-Stop Hits)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 2 Shots Fired, 100% One-Shot-Stop Hits

c) 1 Target, 3 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. One One-Shot-Stop Hit)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 3 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits

d) 1 Target, 6 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits (i.e. Two One-Shot-Stop Hits)

CCW-f for 1 Target, 6 Shots Fired, 33% One-Shot-Stop Hits